اشترك في خدمة الرسائل

Enter your email address:

Delivered by FeedBurner


Powered by Conduit

How to make a Voyage Plan

استعرض الموضوع السابق استعرض الموضوع التالي اذهب الى الأسفل

How to make a Voyage Plan

مُساهمة  Admin في السبت 30 أبريل 2011, 12:31 am

The Voyage Plan is the basic knowledge that a ship officer, particularly a deck officer should know. It is a very important part of navigation. In modern shipping; Port State Control, Vetting Inspections, and other related inspectors coming onboard the ship would check your Voyage Plan. Are you prepared to make a voyage plan? Are you reluctant or afraid to make a voyage plan? I’ll guide you to some pointers that you will need in preparing in making a voyage plan.

[ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذه الصورة]

In this fast growing maritime industry, different types of inspectors would normally ask a lot on how you make a voyage plan. I’ve been onboard tanker ships and believe me; inspectors ask a lot about the charts, publications, and the voyage plan. What should you do?

First of all you should know what tools you will need before you start making a voyage plan.
You must know your destination port in order to pre-plan your route.
You must ask the captain regarding distance-off coasts, additional instructions and information from the charterers and agent of the destination port, restrictions during the voyage with regards to your draft and air draft, tides and currents of the destination port, reporting procedures during the passage or voyage, and so-on. I will elaborate it later as we start discussing about the checklist and the plotting.
After gathering all of that information, you will start planning your course, identify your waypoints, and start calculating your courses and distances.
If you’re not crossing any ocean, you can simply use “Mercator sailing”.
If you’re crossing an ocean, you can use “Great Circle Sailing or Composite Sailing”, but that is under the approval of your Captain.
Remember that all your actions is an extension of the Captains authority, but in such cases that you have doubt that it will involve or may jeopardize the safety of the ship, it is better to consult or ask the Captain about it. After all, he is the over-all in-charge of the vessel.
What you will need

You will need books to guide you through this instruction to be able to clearly visualize what I’m trying to say. These books are available onboard the ship’s library, located on the Navigation Bridge. As officers and aspiring officers I encourage you to read a lot, and know what you read, and start asking questions. That is how you will learn it onboard the ship. The books are as follows:

Bridge Team Management 2nd Edition (by: Capt. AJ Smith)
Bridge Procedures and Guide 4th Edition (International Chamber of Shipping)
Guides to Port Entry
Nautical Publications
Charts and Chart Catalogue
Notice to Mariners
Navarea navigational warnings
Weather routing
Start making your Voyage Plan

I hope I didn’t miss anything but it is better to check your company’s checklist regarding “Passage Plan Appraisal” to be sure. If you cannot find it, you can simply find a useful checklist on the book “Bridge Procedures Guide”. Always look for the latest edition that you have onboard. Now that you have the tools and information that you need, you can start making your voyage plan.

First, list down the charts that you will need during the passage. This will include large scale charts, which you will use during coastal navigation; and small scale charts, which you will use during ocean navigation.
With the list that you’ve made, start arranging the charts according to the consecutive order that you have listed.
Always have a general or index chart, which you will use as reference, especially when you’re handling a lot of charts. As beginners you would most likely get lost in plotting. You must have an overview where you are plotting your courses.
Remember that the distance to go that you will give to your Captain will be from pilot to pilot station. That means from pilot station departure port to pilot station arrival port. The Pilotage waypoint is not included in your sea passage calculation of distance run. You will have a different calculation for that.
You must know how much will be the remaining distance from pilot station to berth.
When you already have your list of waypoints, start calculating your courses and distances. There are a lot of computer software that you can use to calculate course and distance. Don’t torture yourself calculating them manually.
When you are already sure and satisfied with the results, you can tell the captain the distance to go to the next port.
Plotting your courses

When plotting your courses, always put in mind your maximum draft, air draft, maneuverability of your ship, etc.

You must know your ship’s limitation.
Apply parallel indexing, position frequency, course alteration or wheel over position, bearing and distance off from a landmark, bouyage system, reporting positions and reporting systems, leading lines, and other means of position fixing other than GPS and ARPA.
All of this is listed down in the book “Bridge Team Management”.
Paper works

Preparing the Chart is just one part of the voyage plan, You must also prepare the Voyage Planning report which will be signed by you as the navigating officer and co-signed by the Master, Chief Officer and the Third officer, to indicate that they concur to the voyage plan that you have prepared and have checked that it is safe to navigate the ship as per voyage plan.

Your first voyage plan will most likely consume a lot of your time. Don’t be discouraged! As you go along and as you do it every time, you will get used to it and you will find a system or a way to make it easier. Constant upgrading of your knowledge will be your key to success and awareness to our constantly evolving and improving Maritime Industry.

@@اثبت وجودك .. لا تقرأ وترحل@@
[ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذه الصورة]

المدير العام
المدير العام

الجنس الجنس: ذكر

تاريخ الميلاد تاريخ الميلاد: 01/05/1987

الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل

Voyage Planning

مُساهمة  Admin في السبت 30 أبريل 2011, 12:38 am

The Master’s Responsibility for Navigation

[ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذه الصورة]
The Master has the ultimate responsibility for the ship’s navigation, which implies his personal supervision of the navigation officer of the watch (OOW), and to delegate authority to the OOW in accordance with established procedures and Master’s standing orders.

In all critical situations, and whenever such a situation is likely to occur, the Master shall take command. He shall by word and action make it absolutely clear towards the OOW or pilot that he takes command, and make sure that this is entered into the ship’s log book.

In reference to Liberian regulation it is understood that the Master has the ultimate decision and authority to say GO or NO GO in cases involving safety of personnel, care of the environment and safety of the vessel.

Voyage Planning

General requirements

The Master shall ensure that the intended voyage is planned in advance, taking in consideration all pertinent information, and any course laid down shall be checked before the voyage commences.

He shall ensure that the vessel’s needs of the intended voyage such as fuel, water, lubricants, chemicals, spare parts, tools, supplies and other requirements have been determined in advance, in consultation with his senior officers.

Prior to each voyage

The Master shall ensure that the intended route from the port of departure to next port of call is planned using adequate and appropriate charts and nautical publications necessary for the voyage.

The passage tracks should be marked in all appropriate charts and the true direction of tracks shown. Markings should indicate the position where its required to transfer to the next chart including next chart’s number.

He should assure that the voyage planning is highlighting no-go areas in the charts along the route which correspond with vessel’s draught, and that margins of safety around no-go areas are considered and established.

Time to change course (wheel-over) positions in connection with waypoints should be indicated in the charts. If applicable the method of parallel indexing might be used to monitor any cross-track tendency (e.g. when performing wheel-over operations).

The Master must also assure that passages through narrow waters includes points of no return markings in the charts, where the vessel safely can abort the passage in case of e.g. deviation, technical malfunction or any other situation where it is considered unsafe to proceed.

If applicable contingency plans should be made at the planning stage and shown in the chart, including alternative routes, safe anchorages, waiting areas etc.

Underkeel clearance should be established in accordance with vessel’s Squat program, if applicable.

Verification of planned route

When the route planning is discussed and verified, all pertinent information considered, the execution of the plan should be determined.

The Master shall conduct a short briefing meeting with all officers involved in the vessel’s navigation as OOW, and ensure that the planned passage is clearly understood.

ETAs at critical points of the passage, traffic conditions, ETA at next destination, tidal stream information, best use of available human resources, need for additional personnel (e.g. deep-sea pilot) etc. should be considered. Any complicated legs of the passage should be highlighted.

The meeting should be recorded in the deck log book.

Execution of the Voyage plan

“Bridge Procedure Guide” issued by International Chamber of Shipping containes a thorough guidance to masters and navigation officers on bridge organisation and should be used, Charts/ Regulations/ Publications, in conformity with the Voyage Plan / Bridge Check Lists attached in Chapter 4.3 of this manual.

In addition the “Bridge Team Management” issued by the Nautical Institute is further complementary to above, thus giving the Master and the vessel’s OOW and bridge team the best possible guidance to perform a safe voyage.

Latest editions of both publications shall be available on the bridge for guidance.

The Master shall assure that the navigation officers of the watch (OOW) are familiar with both above publications and especially understands the content in chapter 3 of the “Bridge Team Management” publication.

The Bridge Check Lists B-001, B-002, B-003 attached in Chapter 4.3 shall be used to form a complete Voyage Plan from berth to berth. Sea Passage – Pilot To Pilot” shall be used as a daily check list during the sea passage.

The Master should also;

make sure that voyage planning from port to port is carried out in accordance with Bridge Checklists in “Bridge Procedure Guide” and the regulations and in this connection check the setting of all courses, set maximum intervals for navigation fixes (both terrestrial/electronic and astronomic) during the different legs of the voyage and through out the voyage make frequent control observations of the ship’s position.

OSM KRS advices Masters to establish following position fixing intervals in the voyage planning:

In open sea: At least every 30 min. by GPS (in cross ocean voyage at least every hour), and supplemented by astronomical observations when possible.

In coastal and close waters: At least every 15 min. by use of radar and/or optical bearings and GPS.

During Pilotage: Every 6-12 min. by use of radar and/or optical cross bearings, and GPS.

The Master should:

Establish following routine procedure on comparison of navigational instruments:

Position fixes should be checked by at least two different methodes for position fixing at least on every watch during navigation in coastal and close waters. Variation exceeding 0,2 nm should be verified immediately by a new set of fixes, and if persistent the Master shall be informed.

Further the Master should:

be available on the bridge – and if necessary take command – in narrow, heavy traffic and other difficult waters, when “making landfall” and during arrival and departure port.

be available on the bridge – and if necessary take command – when sailing in fog or navigating in poor visibility or during ice conditions, and consider increased manning/watch keeping/speed reduction etc. in each particular case.

instruct OOW to call the Master whenever a dangerous situation occurs, or is likely to occur, and whenever there may be doubt on such,

make sure that the Master’s instructions in the bridge night order book/the OOW bridge standing orders/changing over the watch instructions etc. are followed and signed by all navigation Officers and to take action if this is neglected – even if no mishap has occurred, ensure that all charts and nautical publications are kept up to date.

Deviation from planned route

If, during a voyage, it is decided to change the next port of call of the planned route, or it is necessary for the vessel to deviate substantially from the planned route for other reasons, then an amended route shall be planned prior to the deviation.


Prior to departure port/arrival at pilot station, necessary information about the ship can be communicated.

When a pilot has embarked, information shall be presented to the pilot. During pilotage the Master can normally delegate the conduct of the navigation of the ship to the pilot, but shall at all times ensure that the pilot has specialised knowledge of the local waters, ship handling experience and communication with local port authorities/traffic centre. Further reference is made to the vessel’s Operation Manual.

Deep Sea Pilot through heavy traffic areas

When passage planning through heavy traffic areas e.g. English Channel and Dover Straits, the Master should take in account the possibility of services from an adequately qualified deep-sea pilot with the requirements of safe navigation.

The Master shall ensure that the OOW monitors the pilot’s instructions to be correctly carried out and understood, and that he assists the pilot with frequent ship’s fixes during pilotage.

Increased vessel readiness / Engine Standby conditions required

In all sea passages which require a pilot, and other passages through heavy traffic areas like e.g. English Channel, Dover straits, Malacca Strait, Singapore Strait, Dardanelles, Gulf of Suez, Hormuz Strait, or any other passages with similar traffic conditions, the vessel shall have increased readiness with engine on standby, and establish lookout watch where considered necessary.

Bridge Check Lists

Due to rising control demands (Port State control) of ship’s voyage and port of calls, and in order to establish a common Company practice, the checklists shall be used for voyage planning and as documentation of the voyage, in addition to the log books.

It is the Master’s responsibility to ensure that the bridge checklists are being used.

Bridge Team

All the ship’s personnel who have navigational watch duties belong to the bridge team. The team might be supported or extended with relevant personnel when deemed necessary.

The Master and pilot(s), as necessary, will support the team which will comprise the OOW, a helmsman and look-out(s) as required.

Duties of the OOW

Under the STCW-95 code the navigation officer of the watch (OOW) is the Master’s representative and is primarily responsible at all times for the safe navigation of the ship and for complying with the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea (COLREGS).

Hence the OOW is in charge of the bridge and the bridge team on his watch until properly relieved, and shall in compliance with shipboard operational procedures and Master’s standing orders ensure that bridge watch manning levels are at all time safe for the prevailing circumstances and conditions.

The primary duties of the OOW in order to maintain a safe navigational watch, will involve watch-keeping, GMDSS radio watch-keeping and navigation.

Watch-keeping duties includes general look-out and surveillance of ships in nearby waters to ensure safe passage in compliance with the COLREGS, recording bridge routine activities and periodic checks on the navigational equipment in use.

The Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) radio communications and continuous radio watch at sea have now become one of the primary duties of the OOW. During distress incidents one of the qualified navigation officers (GOC certificate holder) should be designated to have primary responsibility for radio communication.

NB! The vessel’s position shall be noted daily in the GMDSS Log Book.

The navigational duties of the OOW will primarily be to execute the passage in accordance with the voyage plan, and perform necessary corrections. If need be the OOW should not hesitate to use helm, engine or sound /light signals at any time for such corrections.

The OOW shall in a proper way enable himself to use the vessel’s navigational equipment and take adequate advantage of the information gained, during the voyage.

The steered gyro courses should frequently be compared against the magnetic compass, and the execution of deviation observations to be performed at least once on each watch, and after changing course if the conditions allow.

Other routine duties performed by OOW, like e.g. general communications, supervision of engine control- and vessel’s safety system panels, cargo- ballast monitoring etc. should under no circumstances interfere with the exercise of primary watch duties.

At Anchor

OOW shall maintain proper control with position, current, tide, weather, proximity of other vessels, state of engine readiness etc. If any indications of vessel dragging, or to close approach of other vessels, the Master should be called immediately, while at the same time OOW should take preventive measures. The deck crew assigned to watch duties while at anchor should be available on short notice.

Calling the Master

Under no circumstances the OOW shall hesitate to call the Master if in doubt or uncertain about the navigation, visibility or any other situation that OOW in doubt. In other situations such as navigation in restricted visibility, heavy weather or in tropical storm areas bridge procedure should be followed.

Watch Relief of the Bridge

The OOW is obligated to thoroughly brief his or her relief before leaving the bridge. This applies to the steering courses as well as position and distance calculations, other traffic and any additional circumstances the relief person must be aware of before taking over responsibility for the watch. The Master’s (night) order book should also be presented.

The relieving OOW must assure him or herself that the presented data agrees with his own observations. It must be arranged between both parties that complete agreement prevails regarding the navigational data, ship’s position and conditions before the relief person is in place.

The relieving OOW should also read what is noted in the Master’s (night) order book and sign to acknowledge that it is understood.

When manual steering is used, the OOW should ensure that relief at the helm is handled correctly and that all orders to the helmsman are clearly acknowledged.

Steering procedure

Master shall ensure that makers procedure for changeover from manuel to autopilot and vice versa is posted on a visible place near the steering column readible for the helmsman or officier on watch.” See the instruction manual for exact procedure.

Master shall also ensure that the emergency steering procedure is posted in the steering gear room in such a way that the helmsman easy can read the procedures.


A basic element in performing the duties and tasks within bridge management is knowledge about routines, checklists, use of equipment, duties, etc. It is of utmost importance that new personnel are made familiar within their area of responsibility.

Relevant checklists should be given priority regarding position on board.

Automatic Radar Plotting Aids (ARPA) and Radar Overlay

All vessels managed with automatic radar plotting aids (ARPA) in accordance with the IMO standard.

The Master shall ensure that the OOW and all other officers involved in the navigation of the vessel are ARPA educated, and trained and familiar with the use of the vessel’s ARPA equipment. He shall particulary highlight the correct use of a dual speed input and the different effect on the plotted vectors when using speed through water or speed over ground. The importance of using correct speed input to avoid error in the radar plotting data must be emphasised.

For correct vessel target vector presentation on the screen, speed and heading inputs need to be sea stabilised (water tracked) to provide the ARPA with correct speed and course through the water.

If ground stabilised mode (bottom tracked) inputs are used for assessing, the risk of collision in fog or poor visibility could be particulary hazardous in sea areas with significant tidal streams and currents.

Most vessels are in addition to paper charts equipped with electronic nautical charts (ENC), which are considered as a secondary aid to navigation only . Some vessels also have the possibility to use the ENC charts in combination with the radar picture as “radar Mapping/radar overlay”. This presentation shall be used with prudence and the Master shall ensure that the OOW is aware of the degraded system accuracy that might occur. Such as difference between radar and ENC picture due to uncorrect chart datum, shifting of buoys, inaccurate hydrographic data, sensor limitations, sensor inputs, user set-up errors etc. Experience has shown that radar echoes from smaller objects also might vanish on the screen due to the ENC chart colours.

The navigation officer of the watch (OOW) must assure that the ENC is geographically referred so that it will appear on the radar screen correctly orientated and positioned relative to the vessel’s position.

When “radar mapping/radar overlay” is in use the Master should therefore instruct the OOW to have an additional radar picture without “radar overlay” available for comparison.

Master Taking Command

The OOW will continue to be responsible for the watch, despite the presence of the Master on the bridge, until the Master has clearly informed the OOW that he has taken over the command and that this is mutually understood. The fact that the Master has taken over the command on the bridge shall be recorded in the deck log book.

The Master’s Standing Orders and the Bridge Night Order Book

The Master’s standing orders shall be dated and posted on the bridge duly signed by the Master and the Navigation Officers of both shifts. The Master shall ensure that the standing orders are understood and complied with by all OOW.

Master’s Standing Orders are prepared as guidance only.

The Master shall keep his own Bridge Night Order Book, which should contain the current orders and messages that the Master wants the OOW to comply with. The order book is intended for use at night, in addition to standing orders, or when the Master has duties which demand his absence from the bridge.

Before the OOW takes over the watch, he shall carefully read the contents of the night order book

and sign that he is informed and have understood the content

@@اثبت وجودك .. لا تقرأ وترحل@@
[ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذه الصورة]

المدير العام
المدير العام

الجنس الجنس: ذكر

تاريخ الميلاد تاريخ الميلاد: 01/05/1987

الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل

استعرض الموضوع السابق استعرض الموضوع التالي الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة

- مواضيع مماثلة

صلاحيات هذا المنتدى:
لاتستطيع الرد على المواضيع في هذا المنتدى